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South Step Trench

Site Chronology

The following table provides a chronological outline of the site's settlement as revealed in archaeological efforts undertaken at Çadır Höyük between 1993 and 2008. Please note that the phases of occupation are numbered in ascending order, on the assumption that we have exposed all the major phases that we will find (with the possible exception of the Neolithic) from earliest to latest (I-X). The subphases, on the other hand, are lettered in descending order on the assumption that additional subphases may be uncovered below those already accounted for. We emphasize that while this is a preliminary chart and is susceptible to change and organization, it does reflect our current understanding of Çadır Höyük's historical development.*
*Introduction and table data excerpted from a 2008 slide presentation by Dr. Ron Gorny.
For site chronology at a glance, see our mound cross-section.
Period Place Dates/Sublevels Primary Areas Comments
Islamic X ca. 1100 CE and after Area around mound
  • Misc. pottery
  • Seljuk coin in a nearby valley
Byzantine IXa ca. 1075 CE, latest rebuild Area 4 (800.890)
  • Poorly rebuilt walls (unfinished?)
  • Stone pile in central courtyard
Byzantine IXb1 ca. 1000 CE,
rebuilding of main fort
Area 2 (910.920, 1050.1000)
Area 4 (800.890)
  • Ceramics, walls, and many coins
  • Ash and burning over animal remains
  • Many 11th c. coins with animals
  • Samuel Alusianos lead sealing
IXb2 Last sublevel Bldg. I (terr.)
Foundations in terr. sounding
Area 2 (950.970, 840.970)
Sounding (910.920)
  • Const. X (1059-1067) coin on the terrace
Byzantine IXc1i 2nd sublevel Bldg. A (cit.)
ca. 800-900 CE
Area 4 (800.890)
  • 2nd phase exterior citadel wall
  • Large mortared interior wall remained in use
IXc1ii 2nd sublevel Bldg. I (terr.) Area 2 (950.970, 840.970)
  • Coarseware pottery
IXc2i 1st sublevel Bldg. A (cit.) Area 4
IXc2ii 1st sublevel Bldg. I (terr.) Area 2 (950.970, 840.970)
  • Imitation African red slip ware
Byzantine IXd1 Early Byzantine
ca. 500-600 CE
Area 4 (cit.?)
  • 1st phase exterior citadel wall
  • Main interiior wall (F1)
  • Plaster floors and plaster basin
IXd2i Early Byzantine
ca. 500-600 CE
Area 2 (950.970, 840.970)
(especially surfaces F33 & F34)
  • African red slip ware
IXd2ii Early Byzantine
ca. 500-600 CE
(especially surface F37)
  • Inlaid box lid
Roman VIII ca. 100 BCE-300 CE Area 2 (910.920)
  • Pottery on the terrace only
Hellenistic VII ca. 300-100 BCE Area 2 (910.920)
Area 3 (770.890, 770.900)
  • Pottery and robber trench
  • Wall at top of E. step trench
Late Iron VI ca. 500-300 BCE Area 4 (790.890)
Area 5 (850.880)
  • Painted sherds across site, esp. in north monumental "Achaemenid" gate area and south "Phrygian" gate area
Middle Iron Va ca. 1000-500 BCE Area 3 (770.890)
  • "Phrygian" pottery
  • Gate, city walls, and installations
Late Bronze/
Early Iron Trans.
Vb ca. 1200-1000 BCE Area 4 (780.890)
  • Early Iron and "Dark Age" Bronze pottery
  • Walls and foundations
  • C14 dated
Late Bronze II IVa Hittite Empire period
ca. 1400-1200 BCE
Area 1 (800.930)
Area 3 (770.880)
Area 4 (790.890)
Area 5 (850.880)
Area 7 (Çaltepe)
  • Pottery
  • Architecture, city wall, and monumental gate
  • Temple and hilammi(?)
Late Bronze I IVb Old Hittite Kingdom
ca. 1600-1400 BCE
Area 1 (800.930)
  • Pottery and walls throughout E. step trench
Middle Bronze/
Late Bronze Trans.
IIIa Old Assyrian Colony Age
(Karum Ia)
ca. 1750-1700 BCE
Area 1 (800.930)
Area 2 (Terrace)
Area 3 (760.880)
  • Wall F20 with burned bricks
  • Pottery and installations
  • OACP pottery
Middle Bronze II IIIb Old Assyrian Colony Age
(Karum Ib) ca. 1850-1750 BCE
Area 1 (800.930)
Area 2 (Terrace)
Area 3 (760.880)
  • Casemate wall
  • OACP pottery
  • Pits above mud brick walls
  • C14 dated
Middle Bronze I IIIc Old Assyrian Colony Age
(Karum II)
ca. 2000-1850 BCE
Area 1 (800.930)
  • City wall, gate, and architecture
  • C14 dated
Early Bronze III IIc ca. 2300-2000 BCE Area 1 (800.930)
Area 3 (780.890)
  • Intermediate and Cappadocian wares
Early Bronze II IIb ca. 2800-2300 BCE Area 3 (760.880)
  • Red chaff-tempered pottery
Early Bronze I IIa2 ca. 3000-2800 BCE Area 3 (770.910)
  • 2-room houses
Early Bronze I/
Late Chalc. Trans.
IIa1 ca. 3200-3000 BCE Area 3 (770.890)
  • Graves cut into Ib
  • Hearths above "burned room"
  • Black polished pottery and black incised wares
  • Copper grave goods
  • C14 dated
Late Chalcolithic Ia1 ca. 3250-3200 BCE Area 3 (770.890)
  • Small weak wall foundations (1998)
Ia2 ca. 3300-3250 BCE Area 3 (770.890, 770.900)
  • Stronger foundations under Ia1
  • Pithos room above gate
Late Chalcolithic Ib1 ca. 3350-3300 BCE Area 3 (770.890, 770.900)
  • Levels under Ia2 wall, separated from gate by plaster floor and destruction
  • C14 dated
Ib2 ca. 3600-3350 BCE Area 3 (770.890, 770.900)
  • Gate and enclosure wall (latest phase)
  • C14 dated
Ib3 ca. 3700-3600 BCE Area 3 (770.890, 770.900)
  • Gate and enclosure wall (earliest phase)
  • C14 dated
Early Chalcolithic Ic ca. 4500 BCE Deep Sounding
  • Fill layer with F42 wall
  • C14 dated
Early Chalcolithic Id ca. 5200 BCE Deep Sounding
  • F43 wall
  • C14 dated
Early Chalcolithic Ie ca. 5300 BCE Deep Sounding
  • F44 wall foundation
Neolithic If ca. 5500 BCE Unexcavated
  • No evidence
Cadir Hoyuk
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